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Membuat Paragraf dalam Bahasa Inggris

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Seperti tulisan (writing) yang lain, paragraf berkenaan dengan konteks dan konten. Adapun konten terdiri dari diksi, struktur, dan tata bahasa (grammar). Grammar yang paling sering dipakai dalam writing adalah tenses, phrase (terutama noun phrase), clause, dan gerund, to infinitive, participle. menulis akan menjadi lebih mudah jika kita menguasai konteks dan konten sebelum membuat writing terutama untuk tujuan akademik yang menuntut tata bahasa, diksi, dan struktur yang baik.

1.unitytopik yang spesifik
2.completenesskelengkapan
a. main ideaterdiri dari topik dan controlling idea (batasan)
b. supporting ideamayor detail, minor detail
c. concluding sentenceKesimpulan (pilihan)
3.coherenceketerhubungan
3 Elemen Penting dalam Membuat Paragraf
1.descriptive paragraphmayor detail bersifat paralel yang artinya urutan tidak mempengengaruhi makna paragraf
2.cause and effectmembicarakan sebab akibat
3.narrative paragraphmayor detail bersifat seri (urutan), biasanya berdasarkan urutan waktu atau proses
4.comparison and contrastmengenai pertentangan atau perbandingan 2 hal atau lebih
Jenis-Jenis Paragraf

 

Berikut contoh langkah-langkah menulis paragraf dalam bahasa Inggris:

Pre-writing

  1. menentukan topik
    problem solving 
  2. controlling idea (batasan)
    the steps for, yaitu mengenai tahapan. Adapun jenis paragrafnya adalah narrative paragraph, karena problem solving merupakan sebuah tahapan. Contoh-contoh controlling idea yang lain diantaranya:
    a) The reasons for
    b) The causes (the effects of) 
    c) The steps for (the procedure for) 
    d) The advantages of (the disadvantages of) 
    e) The ways to (the methods of) 
    f) The different sections (parts, kinds, types) of
    g) The characteristics (traits, qualities) of
    h) The problems of
    i) The precautions for
     
  3. membuat main idea atau topic sentence (s + v)
    Harus terdiri dari subjek dan predikat bukan phrase. misalnya, Problem solving has 3 main steps.

Outlining: membuat kerangka

Outline Ini akan menjadi bahan untuk setiap supporting detail yaitu mayor detail. Karena controlling idea berupa lagkah-langkah, maka outline-nya adalah problem identification, generating solutions, dan making a work plan

Writing supporting details

Supporting details adalah rincian-rincian yang menjelaskan topic sentence dan terdiri dari mayor detail dan minor detail. Mayor detail menjelaskan topik sentence. Adapun minor detail menjelaskan mayor detail, bisa berupa alasan, fakta pendukung, dan lain-lain. Minor detail tidaklah selalu harus ada, sesuai kebutuhan.

1.outlineproblem identification
mayor detailFirstly, we must identify the problems. Problem identification is activity for finding a root problem.
minor detailProblem identification consists of determining problem statement, making issues tree, determining priority, and finding out a root problem.
2.outlinegenerating solutions
mayor detailSecondly, after identifying the problems, we continue to generate solutions.
minor detailGenerating solutions consists of brainstorming structurally, making matrix to determine a priority, and making key performance indicator for every solution.
3.outlinemaking a work plan
mayor detailthirdly, the last step is making a work plan.
minor detailA work plan can be made by determining deadline, and person in charge for every activity based on selected solutions
minor detailProgress of work plan can be monitored by making a Gantt chart.
Contoh Mayor Detail dan Minor Detail

Writing concluding sentence

penutup atau kesimpulan biasanya dibentuk dengan cara mengulang topic sentence dengan bahasa yang berbeda. Misalnya, In conclusion, Problem solving is not only generating solutions but also problem identification and making a work plan that is just as important. Concluding sentence adalah pilihan dan tidak harus ada. 

Problem solving has 3 main steps. Firstly, we must identify the problems. Problem identification is activity for finding a root problem. Problem identification consists of determining problem statement, making issues tree, determining priority, and finding out a root problem. Secondly, after identifying the problems, we continue to generate solutions. Generating solutions consists of brainstorming structurally, making matrix to determine a priority, and making key performance indicator for every solution. Thirdly, the last step is making a work plan. A work plan can be made by determining deadline, and person in charge for every activity based on selected solutions. Progress of work plan can be monitored by making a Gantt chart. In conclusion, Problem solving is not only generating solutions but also problem identification and making a work plan that is just as important.


Thank:
Mr. Aris R dan Mr. Adzim, tutor pada program academic writing, Kresna_ELI, kampung Inggris

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